Sunday, 2 July 2017

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Thursday, 29 June 2017

5 Five Star Tet Model Papers Free Download

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Sunday, 25 June 2017

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Thursday, 4 May 2017

2 May Today History

“[Satyajit] Ray's magic, the simple poetry of his images and their emotional impact, will always stay with me.” ~ Martin Scorsese, Hollywood film maker, in an interview with The Washington Post (2002)

A name taken with reverence in the international film world, Satyajit Ray was a Calcutta-born filmmaker, whose array of work in the fields of cinema, music, literature, and art can be compared to very few on the planet till date.

Satyajit Ray was born a single child on the 2nd of May 1921 in Calcutta. His parents were Sukumar Ray, a distinguished comedy poet, writer and artist, and Suprabha Ray. His grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray, was another famous literary personality of his time. The family also had other literary figures, like Lila Mazumdar and Sukhalata Rao (Ray’s aunts), and Subimal Ray (his uncle), all writers for children. Such an illustrious family, who played a significant role in the literary renaissance of Bengal, had its imprints on the young boy, Manik as Satyajit Ray was lovingly called by family and friends.

Childhood and Education

As a child, Satyajit Ray was adored by his family, which included grandparents and a number of aunts, uncles and cousins. So, despite him losing his father at an early age of two and a half, Ray found himself spending a lot of time in the family-owned printing press. It was here that he found his early inspirations for printing, illustrations, and writing. In addition, his mother made sure to read him stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to nurture young Manik’s minds to story-telling.

Academically, Satyajit Ray was an average student, more interested in arts. He went to school at the Ballygunge Government School, and completed his bachelor’s degree in Economics from the Presidency College, Calcutta. In his memoir, My Years with Apu: A Memoir, he describes himself as a “film fan” since school days, more into “Picturegoer” and “Photoplay” magazines than textbooks. Young Manik’s interests lay in Hollywood gossip, actress Denna Derbin, and “Irving Berlin and Jerome Kern tunes”. In college, his interest shifted from film-stars to film-makers like Frank Capra and John Ford.

Just out of college, Ray wanted to kickstart his career as an artist, as he realised he was good at drawing. His mother, however, wanted him to study further, at the Visvabharati Institute in Shantiniketan. Even though being against the idea, Ray conceded and went on to study fine arts at the institute. This experience was one of the biggest learnings he received in his career. With eminent teachers like Nandalal Bose, Ray gathered a great deal of knowledge about the “artistic and musical heritage” of India and various other art forms of the Far East, like calligraphy.

Career Beginnings

Satyajit Ray’s career beginnings were humble, as a junior visualiser at a British advertising firm. He later also worked as a cover page illustrator for a publishing house. His illustrations were in fact much liked and in demand. Some of the famous books he illustrated for were Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru and Maneaters of Kumaon by Jim Corbett. It was during this time that he read (and illustrated) the Bengali novel Pather Panchali written by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay. This book left such an imprint in his mind that he ended up making it the subject of his first film.

The plunge into movie-making did not come to Satyajit Ray right away. Even though he was actively involved in watching and studying movies by co-founding the Calcutta Film Society in 1947 with a friend, Ray’s movie aspirations were just in his mind. The first time he received encouragement for film-making was from Jean Renoir, the French director, who had come to Calcutta to scout locations for his movie The River. Ray had the “it’s time to plunge” moment, when he watched Bicycle Thief by Vittorio De Sica in London. He was there for a three-month stint for his advertising firm. An interesting fact is that in the three months he watched close to a hundred!

Satyajit Ray the Film-maker

Starting out as a film-maker was not simple for Ray, due to monetary issues. Then again, he was not ready to work with producers who wanted to change the story. Since the beginning of his film career, Ray believed in working without any strings attached. This not only made him turn down producers from India, but also later film offers from abroad. Andrew Robinson in his book Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye remarks, “To work properly, Ray needs to be entirely free . . .”

Ray, even with limited means, managed to pursue his film-making dreams with gusto and passion. His films were either adapted from well known Bengali stories, or they were written by him. He also did his own title illustrations and music scores.

Ray’s first film, Pather Panchali was well received all around the world. But the real breakout movie of his career is considered to be his second film, Aparajito. It garnered accolades and awards from film festivals, like the one in Venice.

In his lifetime, Ray directed about 36 films, documentaries and short features. These include the widely acclaimed Shatranj Ke Khiladi, Apur Sansaar, Ghare Baire, Aranyer Din Ratri, Charulata, and Seemabadha. Critics laud his movies for their true-to-life imagery, poetic scenes, and ‘cinematographic technique’. Akira Kurosawa, a highly distinguished film-maker in his own right, was a huge fan of Ray’s films. In an interview he gave in Moscow in 1975, he mentions Ray thus – “Ray paints his picture, but its effect on the audience is to stir up deep passions. How does he achieve this? There is nothing irrelevant or haphazard in his cinematographic technique. In that lies the secret of its excellence.”

Ray, along with praises from luminaries in world cinema, also won a number of awards. His movies won in film festivals across the world, including those in Berlin, Venice, London, Tehran, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Melbourne, and Moscow. His entire body of work was also recognized with honors like L├Ęgion d'Honneur (France), Bharatratna (India), Special Golden Lion of St. Mark (Venice), Magasaysay (Manila), and even Oscar’s Lifetime Achievement (USA).

2 May Today History

Along with Film-making

Satyajit Ray was not just a film-maker. Andrew Robinson, in his book, Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye, mentions that his regular income, in fact, never came from the movies he made. His earning was usually the stories he wrote for magazines and book publications, illustrations for them, and translations for the foreign audience. He is best known for children’s books like those on Feluda and Professor Shonku. Ray is in fact widely acclaimed for the illustrations and calligraphies he did for his stories and films.

The Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, in an article for The New Republic in 1996, perfectly sums up Ray’s contributions to art, literature and cinema: “The work of Satyajit Ray presents a remarkably insightful understanding of the relations between cultures, and his ideas remain pertinent to the great cultural debates in the contemporary world, not least in India.”



Also on this day:

1920 – Vasantrao Deshpande, Indian singer and sitar player, was born



References:

Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye by Andrew Robinson
Satyajit Ray and the art of Universalism: Our Culture, Their Culture by Amartya Sen
Wikipedia
WBPG020514

1 MayToday History


"The language and culture of an area have an undoubted importance as they represent a pattern of living which is common in that area." ~ Resolution of the Government of India relating to the State Reorganization Commission, 1953

The struggle for independence from the British Raj was an extremely significant battle India fought. However, post-1947, India had another major struggle forward – the important decision of forming states for effective administration of the newly formed democratic country. According to historical records, during the British rule, India was divided into about “600 princely states and provinces”. Those that remained within the international boundaries of India were reorganised based on principles devised by the State Reorganization Commission (1953). These principles included the bases of strengthening the unity and security of India, linguistic and cultural uniformity, and economic considerations.

Despite the promise of formation of states on linguistic basis, the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru recommended the “Bombay State”, which was a bilingual state and consisted of the Gujarati-speaking Saurashtra and Kutch, and the Marathi-speaking Marathwada (Hyderabad) and Nagpur district (now in Madhya Pradesh). Areas in the south of Bombay belonged to the then Mysore state. The reason for this uneven state reorganization was based on the fear that a uni-linguistic state may try to break away from the country and want to form a separate country. Then again, states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala – all reorganised uni-linguistically – were already declared.

Formation of the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti

People and political parties wishing for the formation of a single Marathi-speaking state came together and founded the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti (United Maharashtra Front) in Pune in February 1956. It had members who were known for being followers of Lokmanya Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. Their sole purpose was to demand the formation of a “Samyukta Maharashtra”. The movement was led by Keshavrao Jedhe.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and his party, Scheduled Caste Federation, were believed to support the statehood of Maharashtra too, and they formed an alliance with the other parties in the Front for achieving this goal.

A similar front was formed in the Gujarati-speaking areas as well, known as the Samyukta Gujarat Samiti.

The Movement

The United Maharashtra Movement or the Samyukta Maharashtra Andolan began with peaceful agitations from Belgaum. Participants of this Satyagraha comprised men and women across castes and communities. The Samiti also wrote letters to the Centre, iterating their demands for a uni-lingual state of Maharashtra that would include Bombay. The Congress leaders changed their stance after much agitation, but proposed to detach Bombay from Maharashtra and make it into a separate city-state. This was unacceptable to the Samiti due to economic reasons.

The movement got impetus when the then Finance Minister in the central cabinet under Nehru, Mr. C. D. Deshmukh, resigned and announced his joining the United Maharashtra Movement.

A gruesome part of history associated with the movement was the police firing at the Flora Fountain in the city of Bombay (now Mumbai) in January 1960. This led to many lost lives. According to sources, this andolan saw the death of about 105 people in different places in the region. Today, Flora Fountain is known by a different name – Hutatma Chowk (English: Martyr’s Crossroad) memorialising the lives lost that day.

Victory

1 MayToday History

The United Maharashtra Movement, after much struggle for the past four years, saw victory when the proposal for the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat was put forward and approved in the Lok Sabha. With the passing of the resolution, the state of Maharashtra with its administrative capital at Bombay (now Mumbai) came into existence on May 1st 1960. It is believed Indira Gandhi, the then president of the Indian National Congress, was instrumental in the view-shift of the party and the Government.

To this day, the first of May is observed as Maharashtra Diwas or Maharashtra Day. Celebrations are held at the Shivaji Park (Mumbai) every year and attended by the governor, chief minister and other ministers, armed force officials, and the public. The day is commemorated by a colorful parade, hoisting of the national flag, and paying tribute to the martyrs.

Also on this day:

1919 – Manna Dey, Indian playback singer, was born

1988 – Anushka Sharma, Indian actress, was born



References:

Language Use in Administration and National Integration by B. Mallikarjun (Published by the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore)
Language Movements of India by E. Annamalai (Published by the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore) Wikipedia sites
Wikipedia
WBPG010514

30 April Today India History

30 April Today India History

311 Roman Emperor Galerius issues Edict of Toleration, ending persercution of Christians in the Roman Empire
711 Islamic conquest of Iberia: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).
1562 1st French colonists in North America: Jean Ribault & colonists arrive in Florida
1789 George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States of America
1859 Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" is first published in literary periodical "All the Year Round" (weekly installments until Nov 26)
2009 Chrysler automobile company files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

29 April Today India History

29 April Today India History

1862 New Orleans falls to Union forces during US Civil War
1864 Battle of Gate Pa (Pukehinahina): 1,700 British troops suffer their worst defeat of the New Zealand Wars at the hands of 230 entrenched Maori warriors in Tauranga
1916 Irish republicans abandon the post office in Dublin and surrender unconditionally, marking the end of the Easter Rising
1945 US Army liberates 31,601 in Nazi concentration camp in Dachau, Germany
1975 Vietnam War: US begins to evacuate it's citizens from Saigon in Operation Frequent Wind in response to advancing North Vietnamese forces, bringing an end to US involvement in the war
1990 Wrecking cranes began tearing down the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate
1997 The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 comes into force, outlaws production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons among its signatories.

April 28 Today India History

April 28 Today India History

357 Constantius II visits Rome for the first time.
1282 Villagers in Palermo lead a revolt against French rule in Sicily.
1635 Virginia Governor John Harvey is accused of treason and removed from office.
1760 French forces besieging Quebec defeat the British in the second Battle on the Plains of Abraham.
1788 Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the constitution.
1789 The crew of the HMS Bounty mutinies against Captain William Bligh.
1818 President James Monroe proclaims naval disarmament on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
1856 Yokut Indians repel an attack on their land by 100 would-be Indian fighters in California.
1902 Revolution breaks out in the Dominican Republic.
1910 The first night air flight is performed by Claude Grahame-White in England.
1916 British declare martial law throughout Ireland.
1919 Les Irvin makes the first jump with an Army Air Corps parachute.
1920 Azerbaijan joins the Soviet Union.
1930 The first organized night baseball game is played in Independence, Kansas.
1932 A yellow fever vaccine for humans is announced.
1945 Benito Mussolini is killed by Italian partisans.
1946 The Allies indict Tojo on 55 counts of war crimes
1947 Norwegian anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl and five others set out in a balsa wood craft known as Kon Tiki to prove that Peruvian Indians could have settled in Polynesia.
1953 French troops evacuate northern Laos.
1965 The U.S. Army and Marines invade the Dominican Republic.
1967
Boxer Muhammad Ali refuses to be inducted into the U.S. Army after his local draft board rejects his application to be classified as a conscientious objector for religious reasons. (He is a Muslim.) Ali will subsequently be banned from boxing, stripped of his titles, and convicted of draft evasion. In 1971, in a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court will overturn his conviction. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1969 Charles de Gaulle resigns as president of France.
Born on April 28
1442 Edward IV, king of England (1461-1470, 1471-1483), first king of the House of York.
1758 James Monroe, fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).
1878 Lionel Barrymore, American stage, screen and radio actor.
1892 John Jacob Niles, American folk singer and folklorist.
1898 William Soutar, Scottish poet.
1902 Johan Borgen, Norwegian novelist.
1912 Odette Hallowes, British secret agent.
1926 Harper Lee, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist (To Kill a Mockingbird).
1930 James Baker III, Cabinet secretary for Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.
1936 Kenneth White, poet and essayist.
1937 Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq.
1937 Jean Redpath, Scottish folk singer.

27 April Today India History

27 April Today India History

27 Apr, 1954 - U.S.A. Movie "White Christmas"
27th April, 1954 : The Movie White Christmas featuring the songs of Irving Berlin, including the Title Song White Christmas, starring Bing Crosby and Danny Kaye, opens at Radio City Music Hall. The original song "White Christmas" was originally heard for the first time in the 1942 film Holiday Inn starring Bing Crosby and Fred Astaire.


27 Apr, 1938 - US Average Incomes Down Up to 20%
27th April, 1938 : The national average income again dropped in comparison from 10 years ago in 1928 by 7% with some areas of the workforce earning up to 20% less than 10 years ago.


27 Apr, 1938 - U.S.A. Tommy Dorsey
27th April, 1938 : Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded "I Hadn’t Anyone ’til You" with Jack Leonard as vocalist. Tommy Dorsey and his brother became two of the most famous big band leaders of their day and are still the model for many jazz and swing musicians today.


27 Apr, 1941 - Greece Nazi Occupation
27th April, 1941 : Nazis take and occupy Athens in Greece.



27 Apr, 1945 - Germany War Entering Final Phase
27th April, 1945 : The war in Europe is entering it's final phase as Russian and American troops join hands at the River Elbe in Germany. Ten Days later on May 7th Germany signs unconditional surrender.


27 Apr, 1948 - U.S.A. Rail Strike
27th April, 1948 : A Major Rail Strike country wide is due to start at midnight with much of the rail network closed down across the US.


27 Apr, 1953 - U.S.A. Executive Order 10450
27th April, 1953 : President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450: Hiring and Firing rules for Government Employment. Homosexuality, moral perversion, and communism were categorized as national security threats and could be used as a condition for firing a federal employee and for denying employment to potential applicants.


27 Apr, 1958 - Stop Nuclear Bomb Testing
27th April, 1958 : Scientists around the world are asking politicians to stop nuclear bomb tests including the Nobel Prize Winner Dr Albert Schweitzer.


27 Apr, 1961 - Sierra Leone Gains Independence
27th April, 1961 : Sierra Leone in West African gains independence, after more than 150 years of British colonial rule.


27 Apr, 1968 - Middle East Continued Fighting
27th April, 1968 : More fighting broke out along the Suez Canal and the River Jordan between Israel and Arab Troops with Egyptian and Jordanian and Israel Forces lined up against each other in a tense middle east.



27 Apr, 1968 - U.S.A. War in Vietnam
27th April, 1968 : Many thousands of diversified beliefs protested against the War in Vietnam and many antiwar demonstrators ended up in fights with local police forces around the country who were trying to keep the peace.


27 Apr, 1971 - Welsh Language Society
27th April, 1971 : Eight members of the Welsh Language Society ( the Society wishes to preserve the Welsh Language and part of that was to include all signs in Wales to be bilingual ) they are accused of conspiring to damage, remove or destroy English language road signs in Wales.


27 Apr, 1974 - U.S.A. Calls For Impeachment Nixon
27th April, 1974 : Calls for the impeachment of president Nixon gathered pace as a march by thousands of protesters demanding Nixon to be impeached.


27 Apr, 1978 - Afghanistan Rebels Take Over
27th April, 1978 : Military rebels in Afghanistan murdered both the president and his brother during the coup and have taken over all news TV and radio stations in the capital Kabul and have sealed off the countries airports and roads.


27 Apr, 1984 - England Libyan Embassy Siege Ends
27th April, 1984 : Earlier in the week diplomatic ties are severed between England and Libya and Libyan embassy officials are given 7 days to leave the country. The British ambassador to Libya was given the same deadline to leave Tripoli. Today Libyan diplomats under diplomatic immunity are escorted to Heathrow and onto a plane out of the country which allows the person or persons unknown who shot and killed WPC Fletcher to leave the country and not have to face murder charges.


27 Apr, 1992 - England Betty Boothroyd
27th April, 1992 : Betty Boothroyd, is elected as Speaker in the house of commons becoming the first woman speaker in its 700-year history.


27 Apr, 1994 - South Africa Nelson Mandela
27th April, 1994 : South Africans vote in the country's first multiracial parliamentary elections. Nelson Mandela of the ANC is voted by a landslide to be the next president of South Africa and head the new coalition government.

April 26 Events History

April 26 Events History


25 April Today India Histroy

  • 25 April Today India Histroy

  • 1660 English Convention Parliament meets and votes to restore Charles II
  • 1792 Guillotine first used in France, executes highwayman Nicolas Pelletier
  • 1846 Thornton Affair: Open conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.
  • 1945 "Elbe Day" - US and Soviet forces meet at Torgau, Germany on the Elbe River during the invasion of Germany in WWII
  • 1953 Francis Crick and James Watson's discovery of the double helix structure of DNA is published in "Nature" magazine
  • 1954 Bell labs announces the 1st solar battery made from silicon. It has about 6% efficiency.

24 April Today India History

  • 24 April Today India History

  • 1479 BC Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty).
  • 1184 BC The Greeks enter Troy using the Trojan Horse (traditional date).
  • 1877 Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78: Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1898 Spanish-American War: Spain declares war after rejecting US ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba
  • 1916 Easter Rising of Irish republicans against British occupation begins in Dublin
  • 1967 Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had "gained support in the 

Saturday, 22 April 2017

23 April Today in Indian History

23 April Today in Indian History

Events for April 23

23-April-1504Guru Angad, Sikh Guru, was born.
23-April-1751Gilbert Aliat Minto, governor-general of East India Company, was born.
23-April-1774British Commander Colonel Chapman defeated Rohilla's army and captured Ruhelkhand.
23-April-1795East India Company gave Warren Hastings a grant of the money and he was honourably acquitted of the charges.
23-April-1858Pandita Ramabai, the social reformer and philosopher, was born in the State of Mysore.
23-April-1913Dhananjay Vithal Keer, famous biographer, was born.
23-April-1926Madhavrao Sapre, the great political leader, passed away.
23-April-1928Narasimha Murtey, the educationist, was born at Nandur, A.P.
23-April-1929Ranjit Film Co. was founded by Chandulal Shah and Gohar at Bombay.
23-April-1929The Fate of the Outlaw', a 7-reel film produced by Majestic Film Co. was prohibited by the Board of Censors, Bombay, on April 23 on the grounds that the film glorifieds crime.
23-April-1930Riots break out in Peshawar; 20 Indians shot down after killing of three Britishers.
23-April-1938Viceroy Lord Linlithgow opens the hydro-electric scheme at Malakand.
23-April-1946Commonwealth Occupation Forces in Japan, exchanging its Spitfire Vllls for Mk XlVs in October and arriving in Japan aboard HMS vengence.
23-April-1955Political Committee of Asian-African Conference at Bandung adopted an Indian resolution calling for a ban on atomic weapons.
23-April-1959Peking Radio reports say that Chinese troops defeated rebels in south-eastern Tibet and have closed Tibet's borders with India and Burma.
23-April-1968Bade Gulam Ali Khan, famous ghazal singer, passed away.
23-April-1987Supreme Court in a judgement confers Hindu widows absolute ownership of property under Hindu Succession Act 1956.
23-April-1991Major parties agree to have polls in Punjab.
23-April-1992Satyajit Ray, internationally famous Indian film producer-director, Bharat Ratna Awardee, passed away at the age of 70.
23-April-1994Ibrahim Sulaiman Sait, former the Indian Union Muslim League president, floats a new party - the Indian National League.
23-April-2000Mumbai regains Ranji Trophy.